In some cases these are encouraged or required by the state and used by state agencies.In others they are voluntarily implemented by private operators (e.g., internet service providers).
The filtering program has applied to new ISP customers since the end of 2013, and has been extended to existing users on a rolling basis.
A voluntary code of practice agreed by all four major ISPs However, the complex nature of the active monitoring systems means that users cannot usually opt out of the monitoring and re-routing of their data traffic, something which may render their data security vulnerable.
The range of content blocked by ISPs can be varied over time.
Internet censorship in the United Kingdom is conducted under a variety of laws, judicial processes, administrative regulations and voluntary arrangements.
It is achieved by blocking access to sites as well as the use of laws that criminalise publication or possession of certain types of material.
These include English defamation law, the Copyright law of the United Kingdom, In 1998, the United Kingdom incorporated the European Convention, and the guarantee of freedom of expression it contains in Article 10, into its domestic law under the Human Rights Act. The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government routinely respects these rights and prohibitions.
An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and press.
There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet.
Individuals and groups routinely use the Internet, including e-mail, to express a wide range of views.